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Vision Diseases, Disorders & Definitions
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Increase in focusing power of the eye to maintain a clear image as objects are moved closer. Due to the crystalline lens becoming less flexible as age increases, the result is a natural loss of accommodation (focusing power). This condition is called presbyopia.
Clearness of eyesight. The amount of acuity depends on the sharpness of images and the sensitivity of nerve elements in the retina.
Prescription strength of a plus lens which is used for near vision. A plus lens can be added to another lens such as a minus lens for distance vision.
Age-related macular degeneration or disease (AMD, ARMD):
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging that gradually destroys sharp, central vision. Central vision is needed for seeing objects clearly and for common daily tasks such as reading and driving.
AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. AMD causes no pain.
In some cases, AMD advances so slowly that people notice little change in their vision. In others, the disease progresses faster and may lead to a loss of vision in both eyes. AMD is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 years of age and older.
AMD occurs in two forms: wet and dry.
Where is the Macula?
The macula is located in the center of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The retina instantly converts light, or an image, into electrical impulses. The retina then sends these impulses, or nerve signals, to the brain.
Image Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
What is wet AMD?
Wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow under the macula. These new blood vessels tend to be very fragile and often leak blood and fluid. The blood and fluid raise the macula from its normal place at the back of the eye. Damage to the macula occurs rapidly.
With wet AMD, loss of central vision can occur quickly. Wet AMD is also known as advanced AMD. It does not have stages like dry AMD.
An early symptom of wet AMD is that straight lines appear wavy. If you notice this condition or other changes to your vision, contact your eye care professional at once. You need a comprehensive dilated eye exam.
What is dry AMD?
Dry AMD occurs when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down, gradually blurring central vision in the affected eye. As dry AMD gets worse, you may see a blurred spot in the center of your vision. Over time, as less of the macula functions, central vision is gradually lost in the affected eye.
The most common symptom of dry AMD is slightly blurred vision. You may have difficulty recognizing faces. You may need more light for reading and other tasks. Dry AMD generally affects both eyes, but vision can be lost in one eye while the other eye seems unaffected. Learn more about AMD
Amblyopia or "lazy eye":
The brain and the eye work together to produce vision. Light enters the eye and is changed into nerve signals that travel along the optic nerve to the brain. Amblyopia is the medical term used when the vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working together properly. The eye itself looks normal, but it is not being used normally because the brain is favoring the other eye. This condition is also sometimes called lazy eye.
How common is amblyopia?
Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in childhood. The condition affects approximately 2 to 3 out of every 100 children. Unless it is successfully treated in early childhood, amblyopia usually persists into adulthood, and is the most common cause of monocular (one eye) visual impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults.
What causes amblyopia?
Amblyopia may be caused by any condition that affects normal visual development or use of the eyes. Amblyopia can be caused by strabismus, an imbalance in the positioning of the two eyes. Strabismus can cause the eyes to cross in (esotropia) or turn out (exotropia). Sometimes amblyopia is caused when one eye is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other eye. Occasionally, amblyopia is caused by other eye conditions such as cataract.
Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia
Anophthalmos and microphthalmos, small eye syndrome.
What are anophthalmia and microphthalmia?
Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia is a disorder in which one or both eyes are abnormally small, while anophthalmia is the absence of one or both eyes. These rare disorders develop during pregnancy and can be associated with other birth defects.
What causes anophthalmia and microphthalmia?
Causes of these conditions may include genetic mutations and abnormal chromosomes. Researchers also believe that environmental factors, such as exposure to X-rays, chemicals, drugs, pesticides, toxins, radiation, or viruses, increase the risk of anophthalmia and microphthalmia, but research is not conclusive. Sometimes the cause in an individual patient cannot be determined.
Aqueous or aqueous humor or aqueous fluid:
Clear, watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Nourishes the cornea, iris, and lens and maintains intraocular pressure.
A type of refractive error. Optical defect in which refractive power of an eye is not uniform in all directions (meridians). A large amount may result in headache and significant blurring of images. This condition is typically correctible through a cylindrical power included into the lens design.
The alignment of the lens' cylindrical part; used for correcting astigmatism. This measurement is given in degrees. The values are typically from 90 degrees to 180 degrees.
Portions of this page are excerpted from Dictionary of Eye Terminology, copyright 1990-2006 by Barbara Cassin and Triad Communications. Reprinted with permission.
Some of the information above is reprinted from the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, and is for educational purposes only. Superior Vision strongly recommends eye exams as the best way to diagnose eye conditions and learn more about potential vision problems.